Turkey, a country of utmost strategic importance in the world due to its geopolitical location, is on the crossroads between the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa, which are referred to as the "Lands of the Old World". This country, enjoying a wealth of divine gifts of all kinds of scenic wonders, is a unique bridge between all faiths as well as Eastern and Western civilizations. Turkey is located in the temperate zone between the 36 and 42 degrees of northern latitudes and 26 and 45th degrees of eastern longitudes; and there is a time difference of 76 minutes between its easternmost and westernmost tips. Turkey is linked to the oceans through the Black Sea, Marmara and Mediterranean Seas, which encircle it on three sides. It is like a neighbor to the entire world and has been the epicenter of major trade and migration routes throughout history. The Black Sea is linked to the world via the Straits and momentous shipping routes pass through the Marmara, an interior sea. The country borders Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east, Bulgaria and Greece to the west, and Iraq and Syria to the south. Turkey is a member of a variety of international organizations such as the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, World Trade Organization (WTO), Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization, and the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and it is also a candidate for full EU membership. Turkey, rectangular in shape, has a surface area of 814,578 square kilometers. In this respect, it is greater than all of its neighbors except Iran, and all European countries except the Russian Federation. The land segment on the European continent with 3% of its total area is called Thrace, and the remaining97% landmass in Asia is called Anatolia. The length of the land borders of the country is 2,875 kilometers; its coastline is 8,333 kilometers long, while its landmass is approximately 550 kilometers wide and about 1,500 kilometers long.
Turkey is such a large country with such diverse terrain that the climate varies greatly from one region to another. The south Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey have a typical Mediterranean climate with hot summers and mild winters. As you head towards İ stanbul, summers become shorter and the winters colder. The Black Sea coast is Turkey's wettest region, and the only region which receives rainfall throughout the year. The eastern part can receive up to 2,200 mms annual rainfall, with warm summers and mild winters. In central Anatolia the summers are hot and dry and the winters cold, and as you head east towards Eastern Anatolia the summers become milder and the winters harsher-temperatures can drop as low as -30 C to -38 C in the mountains and snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year.
Spring (April to May) and autumn (September to October) are the best times to visit, since the climate will be perfect for sightseeing in İ stanbul and on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, and it will be cool in central Anatolia, but not unpleasantly so. Visiting before mid- June or after August may also help you avoid mosquitoes. If your primary drive is for beach-bumming, mid-May to September is perfect for the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, if a little steamy out of the water. The Black Sea coast is best visited between April and September - there will still be rain but not so much of it. Visit eastern Turkey in late June to September, but not before May or after mid-October unless you're prepared for snow, road closures and bone-chilling temperatures. With the exception of İ stanbul, Turkey doesn't really have a winter tourism season. Most accommodation along the Aegean, Mediterranean and Black Sea and in some parts of Kapadokya is closed from mid- October until late April. These dates are not set in stone and depend on how the season is going. High season is from July to mid-September, and prices are at their peak. Anticipate crowds along all coastal areas from mid-June until early September. You will need to plan ahead when travelling during the fouror five-day Kurban Bayrami , as banksshut and ATMs may run out of cash.