Pakistan is situated between 23° -35’ to 37° - 05’ north latitudes and 60°-50’ to 77° - 50’ east longitudes. The country is bounded to the west by Iran, to the southeast by India, Afghanistan to the Northwest, China to the Northeast and the Arabian Sea to theSouth. The great mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakoram, and the Hindukush from Pakistan's northern highlands of North-west Frontier Province and the Northern Areas. Punjab province is a flat, alluvial plain with five major rivers dominating the upper region eventually joining the river Indus flowing south to the Arabian Sea. Sindh is bounded to the east by the Thar Desert and the Rann of Kutch and to the west by the Kirthar range.
Balochistan plateau is an arid tableland, encircled by dry mountains.Pakistan traces its history back to at least 2,500 years BC, when a highly developed civilization flourished in the Indus Valley. Excavations at Harappa, Moen-jodaro and Kot Diji have brought to light evidence of an advanced civilization flourishing here even in most ancient times. Around 1,500 BC, the Aryans overwhelmed this region and influenced the earlier civilizations, whose center moved to the Ganges valley, further east. Later, the Persians occupied the northern region between 5th century BC and second century AD. The Greeks came in 327 BC, under Alexander of Macedonia, and passed through like a meteor. In 711 AD, the Arabs, led by Muhammad Bin Qasim, landed at Debal near modern Bambhore and ruled the lower half of Pakistan for 200years. During this time, Islam took roots in the soil and influenced the life, culture and traditions of the people. From 10th century A.D.onwards, a systematic conquest of South Asia by the Muslims from Central Asia began and lasted up to 18th century A.D., when the British colonized the Sub-continent and ruled for nearly 200 years. In 1930, the well-known poet/philosopher, Dr. Mohammed Iqbal conceived the idea of a separate state for the Muslims of the Sub-continent, and in 1940, the All- India Muslim League adopted the famous Pakistan Resolution. After seven years of untiring struggle, under the brilliant leadership of Quaide- Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Pakistan emerged on the world map as an independent sovereign state on August 14, 1947.
Modern Pakistanis are a blend of their Harappan, Indo-Aryan, Indo-Iranian, Saka, Parthian, Kushan, White Hun, Afghan, Arab, Turkic, and Mughal heritage. Waves of invaders and migrants settled down in Pakistan throughout the centuries, influencing the locals and being absorbed among them. Thus the region en-compassed by modern day Pakistan is home to the oldest Asian civilization.
The climate in Pakistan is so varied that, no matter what time of year you go the weather will be pleasant. The country is at its most colourful in spring (March to May, when flowers bloom) and autumn (mid-September to mid-November, when the leaves change and fall). For trekking and mountaineering, June to September is the recommended time.