Situated in 41°00'N latitude and 75°00'E longitude within the heart of Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country bordering Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The mountainous region of the Tian Shan covers over 80% of the country. Their sheer untouched beauty, largely free from ski lifts, funiculars, frequently used paths and observation platforms, stands majestic and intact. The country is a land full of snow field and glaciers, cascading streams and rich green Alps. Kyrgyzstan is often called as “The Switzerland of Asia”. The permanent snows of Kyrgz Ala- Too range are as close as they look, 40 km from the southern outskirts. Waterfalls rush down the canalized Ala- Archa River into the town. The name Kyrgyz, both for the country and the people, means "forty girls" or "forty tribes", a reference to the epic hero Manas who unified forty tribes against the Mongols. The first written evidence of the Kyrgyz people as a nation is found in Chinese chronicles dated as far back as 2,000 BC. They emerged from many ethoses who settled in South Siberia and Central Asia. In the 1-2 centuries BC, a part of the Kyrgyz tribes moved to Enisey and Baikal. It was there that the Kyrgyz tribes organized their first state and Kyrgyz Khanate, which began the consolidation of the Kyrgyz nation and formation of its culture.
The Kyrgyz written language emerged here, but was lost after the state was dismantled by conquerors. However, the human memory was alive: the outstanding epic "Manas" is a genuine encyclopedia of the Kyrgyz history, society, habits and lifestyle of that time. It is possible to say that the statehood of Kyrgyzstan was recreated thirteen years ago. Century-long hopes and expectations of the nation became reality through the route of sovereign and independent development. Kyrgyzstan was the first Central Asian country to declare its independence in 1991 and emerge as a democratic and liberal reform-oriented country, providing a comprehensive program of market reforms. Kyrgyzstan is a remote and mysterious place to many, yet one filled with exotic sights, colorful, pleasant and ruggedly beautiful scenery.
The country's climate varies by region. The climate is subtropical in the erghana Valley and temperate in the northern foothill zone. The lower mountain slopes have a dry continental climate, as they receive hot desert winds from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, whereas the highest mountain elevations have a polar climate. In the valleys, the average daily temperature in July is 28° C (82° F). In January daily averages are as low as -14° C (7° F). Conditions are much colder at high elevations, where in July the average daily temperature is 5° C (41° F) and in January, -28° C (-18° F). Precipitation is between 100 and 500 mm (4 and 20 in) in the valleys and from 180 to 1,000 mm (7 to 40 in) in the mountains. Siberian winds bring freezing temperatures and snow from November to February, with ferocious cold in the mountains. The average winter minimum is –24؛C. Throughout the country, springtime buds appear in April and May, though nights can still be below freezing. Mid-May to mid-June is pleasant, though many mountain passes will still experience snow. From the end of June through the mid-August, most afternoons will reach 32؛C or higher, with a maximum of 40؛C in Fergana Valley towns such as Jalal-Abad; mountain valleys are considerably cooler.
Like most of the region, Bishkek gets most of its rainfall in spring and early summer. Of course in the mountains, the ‘warm’ season is shorter. The best time to visit is July to September, although camping and trekking are pleasant from early June through mid-October. Avalanche danger is greatest during March and April and from September to mid-October. Overall, the republic is best for scenery and weather in September, with occasional freezing nights in October.