The founder of Temurid Empire Amir Temur was born April 9, 1336 in Maverannakhr, near the City of Kesh (an area now better known as Shahrisabz, "the green city" (present Uzbekistan).
Amir Temur conquered West, South and Central Asia and founded the Temurid dynasty.
He was the grandfather of Mirza Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449, and the great-great-great-grandfather of Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur, founder of the Bobur Empire, which ruled parts of South Asia for around two centuries, from 1526 until 1707.
Most of his life the great commander spent in campaigns, his reign lasted 35 years. In 1370 Amir Temur was proclaimed supreme Emir of Turan. When he conquered the territory of Ferghana and Shash, also land between the rivers Amu Darya and Syr Darya, Amir Temur began to expand the boundaries of his future empire. Then Amir Temur with great success conquered Caucasus, Damask,
Then he defeated the conqueror Sultan of minor Asia (1400 - 1402). Having made strong army, Amir Temur created the conditions for further economic and cultural development of his empire. In 1404 Amir Temur led his troops to China, his plan was not succeed. It was the last military campaign of the great commander. February 18, 1405 at the age of 68 years Amir Temur died, was buried in Samarkand.
Creating a powerful centralized state, Amir Temur, without racial and religious prejudices, did not shut himself up in his system of values and traditions, called for friendship, and, unlike his predecessors, patronized those who were devoted to science, culture and art. During his reign, and later the Temurids, there was a notable breakthrough in the development of the state, which in the world aspect was called the Temurid Renaissance.
As the patron of science, culture and art, Amir Temur “honored scholars, sheikhs, sophisticated engineers and historians, considered them elected and worthy men, provided them with every kind of goodwill.”
“Tuzuki Temuri” (“Temur's Code”) plays a special role in studying the life and socio-political activities of Sakhikbiran - a rare historical work that has come down to us, which describes the autobiography and socio-political views of this outstanding statesman and military strategist on state governance and Army.
A lot of valuable works are written about Amir Temur and his contemporaries. These include Ruznomai Gazavaty Hinduston (Diary of a campaign to India) Giyasiddin Ali, Zafarname (The Book of Victories) Nizamuddin Shami and Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, Azhayb al-Makdur fizarihi akhbori Temur (Miracles of Doom In the narrations about Temur") Ibn Arabshah and others.
According to the testimony of his contemporaries - Ibn Khaldun, Hafizi Abru, Ibn Arabshah, Sharafuddin Ali Yazdi, he was a widely educated man and knew jurisprudence (al-fiqh), history, philosophy and poetry.
The historian Hafizi Abru also testifies that “Temur valued all knowledge that could bring practical benefit - medicine, astronomy and mathematics, but he paid special attention to architecture, well understanding the intricacies of building large structures, gave useful advice to builders.” He made a great contribution to the restructuring of cities and the improvement of the country, which fell into decay as a result of many years of feudal disunity and internecine wars. In every possible way, he encouraged the initiative to revive the “dead lands” - at that time the abandoned sites were called. Persons who took up such a difficult and noble cause were granted certain privileges in the Temurids' state.
In particular, the “Code” says: “... In the first year they were not charged anything, in the second year they were satisfied with what they were giving at their discretion, and only for the third year they were charged with kharaj (land tax) According to the norm established by law“.
From “Code” it is also known that Amir Temur “ordered that in every city and village mosques, madrassas and khanaks, hospitals for sick people be built and doctors assigned there.” He ordered to build roads on the roads, and to bridge bridges over the rivers.”
Of particular importance for Amir Temur and Temurids was the development of medical knowledge, the construction of sanative and hygienic purposes. Popular sports and folk games such as kurash, horse riding, goatskin - kupkari, snipe, archery, and much more have become widespread.
Every year Amir Temur's birthday is widely celebrated in Uzbekistan. Translated and published literary sources, scientific and popular books. In Tashkent, Shahrisabz, Samarkand, majestic monuments have been erected, a square, a prospectus and a metro station, institutions of culture and schools in different cities of the republic are named after him.
Homeland of Amir Timur Shahrisabz was chosen as the tourism capital of the Economic Cooperation Organization for 2024. This was announced at the 4th ECO Ministerial Meeting on Tourism December 12-13, 2022.